FMLA - serious health condition - proof
Schaar v. Lehigh Valley Health Services - 3d Cir. - March 11, 2010
Held: A combination of lay and expert testimony can establish that a worker has a "serious health condition" under the FMLA.
The purpose of the FMLA is “to balance the demands of the workplace with the needs of families.” 29 U.S.C. § 2601(b)(1). Accordingly, the FMLA “entitle[s] employees to take reasonable leave for medical reasons,” id. § 2601(b)(2), but they must do so “in a manner that accommodates the legitimate interests of employers.” Id. § 2601(b)(3).
An eligible employee is entitled “to a total of twelve workweeks of leave during any twelve month period” but only if the employee has a “serious health condition that makes the employee unable to perform the functions of the position of such employee.” Id. § 2612(a)(1)(D)
The FMLA defines serious health condition as “an illness, injury, impairment, or physical or mental condition that involves . . . continuing treatment by a health care provider.” Id. § 2611(11). A DOL regulation further defines continuing treatment by a health care provider as a “period of incapacity . . . of more than three consecutive calendar days . . . that also involves . . . [t]reatment by a health care provider on at least one occasion which results in a regimen of continuing treatment under the supervision of the health care provider.”4 29 C.F.R. § 825.114(a) (2005). Incapacity means the “inability to work, attend school or perform other regular daily activities due to the serious health condition, treatment therefore, or recovery therefrom.” Id.
The only issue in dispute is whether Schaar presented evidence that she was incapacitated for more than three days. The District Court held Schaar had to establish more than three days of incapacitation through medical evidence. Because Schaar presented a doctor’s note that established incapacitation for only two days and relied on her own testimony about the remaining days, the District Court granted summary judgment for Lehigh Valley.
Although we have not addressed the question presented by this appeal, other courts have adopted three approaches: (1) the evidence of incapacitation must come exclusively from a medical professional; (2) lay testimony, on its own, is sufficient; or (3) lay testimony can supplement medical professional testimony or other medical evidence. Many district courts, including those in the Third Circuit, have held that a health care provider’s professional medical opinion is the only evidence that can establish incapacity. Contrary to the aforementioned district courts, all of the circuit courts of appeals to address the question we now consider have held that lay testimony can create a genuine issue of material fact regarding incapacitation. Some of our sister circuits have held that lay testimony alone is sufficient to establish incapacitation, while others have held that lay testimony may be used to supplement medical evidence.
Because the incapacitation regulation does not require, or even mention, a health care provider determination, id. § 825.114, we find no support in the regulations to exclude categorically all lay testimony regarding the length of an employee’s incapacitation. However, we do not find lay testimony, by itself, sufficient to create a genuine issue of material fact. Some medical evidence is still necessary to show that the incapacitation was “due to” the serious health condition. 29 C.F.R. § 825. This does not place an undue burden on employees because they must present some medical evidence anyway to establish the inability to perform the functions of the position. Id. § 825.115. In contrast, allowing unsupported lay testimony would place too heavy a burden on employers to inquire into an employee’s eligibility for FMLA leave based solely on the employee’s self-diagnosed illness. For these reasons, we hold that an employee may satisfy her burden of proving three days of incapacitation through a combination of expert medical and lay testimony.